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BC
 

The Early Dynastic Period
   

Dynasty 0
3150 - 3050

Scorpion
 
 

Menes (Narmer ?),
the unifier of Egypt, founded Memphis, having changed the course of the Nile, and then established a temple.
3050 - 2890  

Dynasty 1
 

Hor-Aha
Legend states that he wrote a book on Anatomy, continued building at Memphis (?)
 

Djer
 
 

 Wadj
 
 

Djet
 
 

Den
Some papyri state that the 64th chapter of the Book of the Dead was written (?)
 

Anedjib
 
 

Semerkhet
 
 

Qa'a
 

2890 - 2686
 

Dynasty 2
 

Hotepsekhemwy
 
 

Reneb
 
 

Nynetjer
 
 

Seth - Peribsen
 
 

Khasekhemwy
 
    An Earthquake swallowed many people at Bubastis
    The Worship of Apis at Memphis and Mnevis at Heliopolis was continued
   

The Old Kingdom

2686- 25613
 

Dynasty 3
 

Sanakhte
 
 

Djoser
The building of the first pyramid
 

Sekhemkhet
 
 

Khaba
 
 

Huni
The Mention of an eclipse

2613 - 2498
 

Dynasty 4
 

Snefru
Copper mining at Wadi Ma'arah
 

Khufu
building of the Great Pyramid
 

Djedefre
 
 

Khafre
building of the second pyramid at Giza
 

Menkaure

building of the third pyramid at Giza.

Fragments of coffin in the British Museum.

Some copies of the Book of the Dead say that the 64th chapter was compiled during the reign of this king.

 

Shepseskaf
 

2498 - 2345
 

Dynasty 5
 

Userkaf
 
 

Sahure
 
 

Neferirkare
 
 

Shepseskare
 
 

Neferef
 
 

Niuserre
 
 

Menkauhor
 
 

Djedkare
The precepts of Ptah-hetep were written during this reign.
 

Unas
builder of pyramid at Saqqara

2345 - 2181
 

Dynasty 6
 

Teti
builder of a pyramid at Saqqara
 

Pepi I
builder of a pyramid at Saqqara
 

Merenre
 
 

Pepi II
the story of the presentation of a dwarf
2181- 2040  

The First Intermediate Period
 2181- 2160  

Dynasties 7 to 8
 

Wadjkare
 
 

Qakare Iby
 
 2160 - 2040  

Dynasties 9 to 10
 

Meryibre Khety
 
 

Merykare
 
 

Kaneferre
 
 

Nebkaure Akhtoy
 
 2040 - 1782  

The Middle Kingdom

2134 - 1991
 

Dynasty 11
 

Intef I
 
 

Intef II
 
 

Intef III
 
 

Mentuhotep I
 
 

Mentuhotep II
An inscription at Hammat records that Mentuhotep II sent an expedition to the land of Punt.
 

Mentuhotep III
 

1991 - 1782
 

Dynasty 12
 

Amenemhet I

ascended the throne of Egypt after hard fighting; he conquered the Uaua, a Libyan tribe that lived near Korosko in Nubia.

He wrote a series of instructions for his son Senusret I.

The story of Senehet was written.

 

Senusret I

made war against the tribes of Ethopia

erected granite obelisks and built largely at Heliopolis

 

Amenemhet II
 
 

Senusret II
 
 

Senusret III
 
 

Amenemhet III

special attention was paid to the Nile - canals were dug and sluices made for irrigation.

Lake Moeris (the Faiyum) was built.

The rise of the Nile was marked on the rocks at Semneh

 

Amenemhet IV
 
 

Queen Sobeknefru
 

1782 - 1570
 

The Second Intermediate Period

1782 - 1650
 

Dynasties 13
 

Wegaf
 
 

Ameny Intef IV
 
 

Hor
 
 

Sobekhotep II
 
 

Khendjer
 
 

Sobekhotep III
 
 

Neferhotep I
 
 

Sobekhotep IV
 
 

Ay
 
 

Neferhotep II
 
   

Dynasty 14
 

Nehesy
 

1663 - 1555

Hyksos

Dynasty 15
 

Sheshi
 
 

Yakubher
 
 

Khyan
 
 

Apepi I
 
 

Apepi II
 

1663 - 1555
 

Dynasty 16
 

Anather
 
 

Yakobaam
 

1663 - 1570
 

Dynasty 17
 

Sobekemsaf
 
 

Intef VII
 
 

Tao I
 
 

Tao II
 
 

Kamose
 
   

The New Kingdom

1570 - 1293
 

Dynasty 18
 

Ahmose I
restored Egyptian independence
 

Amenhotep I
attributed with the idea of using the Valley of the Kings
 

Tuthmosis I
 
 

Tuthmosis II
 
 

Hatshepsut

Queen/pharaoh of Egypt

sent expedition to Punt

 

Tuthmosis III

made victorious expeditions into Mesopotamia.

One of the greatest Pharaohs ever to rule Egypt.

 

Amenhotep II
 
 

Tuthmosis IV
 
 

Amenhotep III

warred successfully in the lands south of Egypt and to the North

Perhaps the most glorious time in ancient Egypt's history

 

Akhenaten
Founder of Akhenaten, and leader of the Aten heresy
 

Smenkhkare
 
 

Tutankhamun
 
 

Ay
 
 

Horemheb
 

1293 - 1185
 

Dynasty 19
 

Ramesses I
 
 

Seti I

conquered the tribes in Western Asia

built Hall of Ancestors at Abydos

said to have built a canal from the Nile to the Red Sea

 

Ramesses II

brought Nubia and Messopotamia under Egyptian rule

famous builder

 

Merneptah
 
 

Amenmesses
 
 

Seti II
 
 

Siptah
 
 

Queen Twosret
 

1185 - 1070
 

Dynasty 20
 

Setnakhte
 
 

Ramesses III

famous for his buildings, and for gifts which he made to the temples of Thebes, Abydos and Heliopolis.

His reign represented an era of commercial prosperity

 

Ramesses IV
 
 

Ramesses V
 
 

Ramesses VI
 
 

Ramesses VII
 
 

Ramesses VIII
 
 

Ramesses IX
 
 

Ramesses X
 
 

Ramesses XI
 

1069 - 525
  The Third Intermediate Period

1080 - 945

High Priests

At Thebes
 
 

Herihor
 
 

Piankh
 
 

Pinedjem I
 
 

Masaherta
 
 

Menkheperre
 
 

Smendes II
 
 

Pinedjem II
 
 

Psusennes III
 

1069 - 945

At Tanis
 
 

Smendes I

(Nesbanebdjed)
 
 

Amenemnisu
 
 

Psusennes I

(Pasebakhaenniut I)
 
 

Amenemope
 
 

Osorkon the Elder
 
 

Siamun
 
 

Psusennes II

(Pasebakhaenniut II)
 

945 - 712

At Tanis

Dynasty 22
 

(Libyan or Bubastite)
 
 

Sheshonq I
 
 

Osorkon I
 
 

Sheshonq II
 
 

Takelot I
 
 

Osorkon II
 
 

Takelot II
 
 

Sheshonq III
 
 

Pami
 
 

Sheshonq V
 
 

Osorkon IV
 
 

At Thebes
 
 

Harsiese
 

818 - 712

At Leontopolis

Dynasty 23
 

(Libyan Anarchy)
 
 

Pedibastet
 
 

Sheshonq IV
 
 

Osorkon III
 
 

Takelot III
 
 

Rudamon
 
 

Iuput
 
 

At Herakleopolis
 
 

Peftjauabastet
 
 

At Hermopolis
 
 

Nimlot
 

727 - 715

At Sais

Dynasty 24
 

Tefnakht
 
 

Bakenrenef
 

747 - 656

(Nubian / Kushite)

Dynasty 25
 

Piankhi (Piyi)
 
 

Shabaka
 
 

Shebitku
 
 

Taharqa
 
 

Tanutamun
 

664 - 525

(Saite)

Dynasty 26
 

Psamtik I (Psammetichus I)
allowed Greeks to settle in the Delta, also employed Greek soldiers to fight for him
 

Nekau (Necho)
 
 

Psamtik II (Psammetichus II)
 
 

Wahibre (Apries)
dethroned by his army - succeeded by his general
 

Ahmose II (Amasis)

favoured the Greeks and granted them many privileges.

Naucratis became a great city under his rule.

 

Psamtik III (Psammetichus III)
defeated at Pelusium by Cambyses the Persian and taken prisoner, afterwards slain for rebelling against the Persians
   

The Late Period

525 - 404

(First Persian Period)

Dynasty 27
 

Cambyses II
marched against the Nubians
 

Darius I

endeavoured to open up the ancient trade routes.

established coinage

favoured all attempts to promote the welfare of Egypt.

 

Xerxes
 
 

Artaxerxes I
Nubian revolte
 

Darius II
revolt by Egyptians against their Persian rulers
 

Artaxerxes II
 

404 - 399
 

Dynasty 28
 

Amyrtaeus
leader of Egyptian revolt against the Persians

399 - 380
 

Dynasty 29
 

Nefaarud I (Nepherites I)
 
 

Hakor (Achoris)
 

380 - 343
 

Dynasty 30
 

Nakhtnebef (Nectanebo I)
 
 

Djedhor (Teos)
 
 

Nakhthoreb (Nectanebo II)
 

343 - 332

(Second Persian Period)

Dynasty 31
 

Artaxerxes III
 
 

Arses
 
 

Darius III
conquered by Alexander the Great at Issus

332 - 305

Macedonian

Kings

Graeco-Roman Period
 

Alexander the Great

(Alexander III)

founded Alexandria

sacrificed to Amun

 

Philip Arrhidaeus
 
 

Alexander IV
 

305 - 30
 

Ptolemaic Dynasty
 

Ptolemy I (Soter I)

son of Lagus.

founded Alexandrian Library

encouraged Greeks to make Alexandria their home

 

Ptolemy II (Philadelphus)

built the Pharos

caused Manetho's Egyptian history to be compiled

 

Ptolemy III (Euergetes I)

obtained possession of all Syria

patron of the arts and science

 

Ptolemy IV (Philopator)
founded temple at Edfu
 

Ptolemy V (Epiphanes)

died when poisoned

Rosetta Stone was made during Year 8 of reign

 

Ptolemy VI (Philometor)
 
 

Ptolemy VII

(Neos Philopator)
 
 

Ptolemy VIII (Euergetes II)
murdered
 

Ptolemy IX

(Soter II)
 
 

Ptolemy X (Alexander I)
reigns jointly with Cleopatra III
 

Ptolemy XI (Alexander II)
 
 

Ptolemy XII

(Neos Dionysos)
 
 

Queen Berenice IV
 
 

Queen Cleopatra VII

dies by the bite of an Asp

Egypt becomes a Roman Province

 

Ptolemy XV

(Caesarion)
 

30BC - 395AD
 

ROMANS

27

Caesar

becomes master of the Roman Empire

Candace, Queen of Nubia invades Egypt but is defeated

AD
   
  Tiberius  
  Caligula  
  Claudius  
  Nero

Christianity first preached in Egypt

Blemmyes make raids upon Southern frontier of Egypt




Dates follow those suggested by Peter A. Clayton from his book 'Chronicle of the Pharaohs'